PBL: Final Reflection

What do you now understand best about Project Based Learning?

That PBL is truly a collaborative effort, not just among the students, but the teachers developing the project.  A good PBL lesson involves the input of many people to design, create, implement and review.  While a single teacher can conduct a PBL class, it enhances the students’ chances to retain learning when it is a school wide approach.

What do you understand least well?

This class provided a good foundation for beginning to use PBL.  However, not actually doing it in my school, I am still unsure what it will look like in action.  I have seen some videos that showed elements of a PBL class, but I still would like to see what one looks like live and be able to ask questions when I am uncertain as to what is happening.

What did you expect to learn in this course?

Since I had no experience with PBL, I expected to be introduced to what it was and how to use it in the classroom.  I believed this course would provide me with the necessary tools to develop a PBL classroom.  I also hoped to be able discuss the benefits of PBL at my school in order to persuade the administration to consider giving it a test.

What did you actually learn?

I learned that PBL requires a lot of time to prepare.  Teachers must coordinate with one another to ensure learning is focused on the driving question.  Math can be taught in a more meaningful way that excites even the least interested students.  Students can be given more voice in the choices they make, thus better furnish them with the tools and skills needed for the 21st century world.

More or less, and why?

I learned more than I expected because I had no real idea what PBL entailed.  I only knew it had something to do with projects.  The work required to develop a PBL classroom is incredibly large.  The potential resulting benefits for student learning is even larger.  I don’t know if PBL would be feasible in my school because it would require a shift in thinking among administrators and teachers, but I do know that my students would benefit immensely from it.

What will you do with what you have learned?

I started this course about the same time I reviewed a PBL program for possible inclusion in my school.  I am now better prepared to create a proposal for my school to consider adopting PBL for a test run to increase our students’ motivation, test scores and employability skills.

Designing Integrated Curriculum

When my students take the GED Ready Test for Social Studies or Science, I hand them a calculator.  Their first response is, “Why do I need a calculator for the Social Studies/Science test?”  I explain to them that there is Mathematics in Social Studies and Science.  Inevitably, they say “That’s dumb.”  Therein lies the biggest challenge in interdisciplinary projects.

Education has done a disservice to students by separating learning into disciplinary courses.  In real life, scientists, engineers, archaeologists – anyone and everyone – uses skills learned in all courses in an interconnected way.  Students, however, if they have never been exposed to this, don’t see that connection (this helps explains why students in Algebra have trouble conceiving letters as numbers).  Once students begin working on interdisciplinary projects, they will begin to make those connections (a relief for the Math teacher who tires of the question, ‘why do I need to know this?’).  If students are exposed at an earlier age to this process, it will be more natural for them as they age.  The longer the delay, the harder it will be to reshape their ways of thinking what is a Math/English/Social Studies/Science class.

A second challenge is from educators themselves who may have never taught this way before.  Like the students, you are taking them out of their comfort zone and they may resist.  As a Math teacher, I can teach about numbers, but when it comes to English, I don’t teach too “good”.  But, in an interdisciplinary approach, I don’t have to teach English.  I will work with a team providing the students with the mathematical education they need to successfully complete the project.  Working with fellow teachers, especially those outside our field, can be another new and rewarding experience.  As a team member, you will be designing and implementing a curriculum together.  You will have peers to discuss ideas with (similar to most business environments) and develop a stronger plan.  An added benefit is that the students will see teachers working together, modeling how to collaborate.

Currently, my school is not a traditional one.  We do not have courses like a high school.  When it comes to academic education, we are focused on basic skills and credit recovery or high school equivalency.  I am the only GED teacher.  I am responsible for educating my students in all four GED subjects.  Our high school diploma programs are through established online diploma programs.  We don’t have any say in curriculum.  In order to implement an interdisciplinary approach, it would require a radical change in thinking at our administrative level – something that I don’t foresee happening.  Unfortunately, our students, many who have been failed by the traditional approach to teaching, would benefit greatly from an interdisciplinary curriculum.  They are in dire need of 21st century skills in collaboration and communication and yet we focus on getting them to pass the GED (or obtained their diploma) just so we can meet our quotas.


PBL: Effectiveness in the Diverse Classroom

Find an article on the topic of the effectiveness of Project Based Learning in diverse classrooms. Post a reflection on your thoughts regarding your research this week on Project-Based Learning. What were you able to find? How do you think PBL will fit into your teaching style? Do you have an idea for a project? If so, begin articulating it now.

From the research I have done, the strongest aspect of project-based learning is in how it develops skills beyond intellectual knowledge that students will need when they move on.  By working in teams, students must learn to interact with one another.  Placing students in groups with others who they might not normally associate with at school prepares them for a working environment where they will not know co-workers when they first start working.  They need to learn how to integrate in order to form a cohesive team.

To increase the chance for success, teams need to be accountable for the success of each individual.  This I believe would be the hardest concept for students new to PBL to accept.  Many have always learned in an environment where only what they did mattered for their own grade.  Students who have been previously successful might be initially agitated that they have to assist their fellow classmates in order to obtain a satisfactory grade.  However, if the project is thoroughly planned and introduced to the students with clear and concise assessment rubrics, the students will be fully aware of what the requirements are from the beginning, then they can begin to understand how this different approach will benefit them.

Over the years, I have generally adapted my teaching to my students under the philosophy of whatever it takes.  If my students need a whole class lecture approach, that is what I will do.  If one-on-one tutoring is needed, then I will do that.  This is not to say that it will be easy to incorporate PBL.  The aspect of PBL that I think will be the hardest adjustment for me is in how the content is presented.  As a math teacher at a school that is very test/numbers driven, I have always focused on teaching my students how to solve certain problems.  Many of my students come from schools where they were unsuccessful in direct instruction, however, that is what they know and it is what they are comfortable with despite the results.  Therefore, switching to a PBL classroom would be a big adjustment.  Considering that we have an open entry/exit system, I will always have to deal with this issue.

I am a GED teacher.  I cover each of the four subjects (Language Arts, Math, Science and Social Studies).  I have students who need to pass all four test mixed in with students who only need to pass one, two or three tests.  They are at different levels of ability with different strengths and weakness in each subject.  Having a class on just one topic in a given period would not be beneficial as possibly half the students don’t need to focus on that topic.  My thoughts are that for my project to be the most productive, it must involve students creating some sort of study guide or game that centers around concepts they need to focus upon in order to be successful on the GED test.  This would allow students to develop the skills they need while creating material that their peers could use to strengthen their knowledge base.  Teams could be assigned based upon whichever test(s) the students need to pass.


Vega, V. (2012). Project-Based Learning Research Review. Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/pbl-research-learning-outcomes


Project Based Learning: The Beginning

This is my first experience with Project Based Learning.  I come in to this class with 8 MET courses behind me and yet, I come in still feeling uncertain about what to expect.  While I have begun introductory research on PBL, I still do not know what a project entails in time, resources and planning.  My early readings have me believing that PBL could be a good strategy for where I teach, but my unique situation creates many questions that I want to answer. Can PBL work when students enter and exit the class at different times?  How do you conduct PBL when students are working on different content and at different levels?    I teach GED students. Their focus is on learning what they need to pass the test.  They know they only have to be in classes until they pass.  Therefore, there is no set time for them to be in class like a traditional school.  What kind of difficulties does this pose for PBL and how can they be overcome?  Hopefully, when this class ends, I will have answers to these and other classes


EDTECH 542 Introduction


I am a GED Instructor with the Pittsburgh Job Corps.  Job Corps is a training program associated with the Department of Labor for youths 16-24.  On Friday (June 13, 2014), I will celebrate 9 years there.   Five years ago, we received Promethean boards and this led to my decision to pursue this program.  I also provide training to my peers on educational technology tools.

This is my ninth class in the MET program.  In the fall, I will take EDTECH 505 and do my portfolio next spring (which I, unfortunately and against suggestions, have not done much preparation for, yet).  I plan to attend graduation in May of 2015.

Nines are wild, as that will be the age of my oldest dog, Lacie J., at the end of July.  She is a black and white Shih Tzu.  We added a second dog to our family this winter.  Lucky is a 6 months old brown and white Pomeranian mix and he is a rescue.  He shares my wife’s birthday.  We will celebrate 17 years of marriage three days before Lacie’s birthday.

Since 2001, I have worked part-time as a game day merchandise vendor for the SIX-Time Super Bowl Champion Pittsburgh Steelers.  The extra money comes in handy for vacations to Las Vegas, a destination my wife and I thoroughly enjoy.  Beyond the gambling, we love taking tours – Hoover Dam, Grand Canyon, horseback riding in Red Rock Canyon – and seeing shows like Wayne Newton, Terry Fator and Recycle Percussion.  However, our favorite vacation was to the Black Hills.  We did a helicopter flight over Mount Rushmore and the Crazy Horse Memorial and drove out to Devil’s Tower in Wyoming.  The picture in my advertisement was taken at President’s Park in 2006.  I guess I’ll have to go back out and get one next to the “THIS SPACE RESERVED FOR THE 45TH PRESIDENT” sign.

I better wrap this up.  We are trying to train Lucky, so I need to spend sometime teaching him to “sit”.  Besides, it will give Lacie a break from being tormented by him.  I wish everyone well in this class and in the rest of the program.  I look forward to learning about PBL with you.


Obstacles and Solutions to Integrating Technology

“I’m petrified that we’ll apply new technology to old pedagogy,” Professor Elliot Soloway at the University of Michigan said…. “We are not exploiting the affordances of the new technology to give kids new kinds of learn-by-doing activities….What a waste!” (Cuban, 2012).

In this statement, we find the obstacles to integrating technology in the mathematics classroom.  The question is, “Why?”  Why are we applying new technology to old pedagogy?  Why are we not exploiting new technology?  The answers can be simplified as lack of time and lack of resources, but that only begs more questions of “Why?” Therefore, it might be better to answer the questions of “Who?”  Who is responsible for these obstacles?  That is an easier one.  It is everyone involved in education.

Technology is ever evolving.  What is capable today was not available when today’s teachers were going through school as a student (Dickey, 1997).  For many of them, it is a foreign language and they feel comfortable with doing things they have always done.  They have also developed ideals that are contradicted by technology in the math classroom. One of the major ideals they believe is that students need to be able to do mathematics without use of a calculator (Roblyer & Doering, 2013).  Breaking through this barrier is necessary, but it won’t solve anything if we stop there.  Even if we could get every math teacher in the world to become educational technology experts, we still face other challenges.

In the 1970’s, “New Math” was introduced.  In the 1990’s, graphing calculators made their appearance.  Both of these events had a commonality to them:  professionally generated curriculum material came with them (Norris & Soloway, 2011).  Math teachers did not need to re-write all of their lesson plans; they were provided new ones to use.  Today, technology changes are coming so fast and without curriculum that the teachers are being overwhelmed.  I personally experienced this twice in the past 5 years.  First, when we received interactive whiteboards.   We were provided a week of training on how to use them.  However, designing activities was entirely left up to us.  I dived in and tried to create constructive lessons, but quickly saw how much time it took and was forced to scale back considerably.  You can imagine how the rest of my colleagues, who aren’t as technologically inclined, felt.  Then, this past year, they introduced a new GED test.  The test went under an intensive makeover from low-level skills on Bloom’s Taxonomy to one requiring higher-order thinking in Webb’s Depth of Knowledge.  All of my lessons became obsolete.  In this case, new curriculum has been developed, but it was not available until recently and my school has yet to purchase much of it.  All of this despite the fact that we are four months into the new GED Test.

What are the solutions?  Unfortunately, real solutions can only be accomplished at administrative level and require a complete reversal in educational philosophy.  This does not mean that a math teacher can’t have any solutions to the challenges of integrating technology into the curriculum.  The first step is to understand the limitations and work within them.  Select technology that can be used for long periods of time and develop it completely to create an active learning experience for your students (Roblyer & Doering, 2013).  Refine this technology before adding more.  Expand your network by subscribing to blogs of like-minded teachers, where you can get ideas.  If you don’t have the resources to replace your curriculum, look for technology to support your current one.  Most importantly, remember that Rome wasn’t built in a day and look how good that turned out.


Cuban, L. (2012). Integrating technology into a math lesson. Larry Cuban on School Reform and Classroom Practice. Retrieved from http://larrycuban.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/integrating-technology-into-a-math-lesson/

Dickey, E. (1997). Challenges of mathematics teaching today. Retrieved from http://ed.sc.edu/ite/dickey/nassp/nassp.html

Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2011). The 10 barriers to technology adoption. District Administration Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.districtadministration.com/article/10-barriers-technology-adoption

Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2013). Integrating educational technology into teaching (6th ed., New International ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.

Relative Advantage of Using Technology to Make the Content Areas More Engaging, Relevant and Authentic

You are taking a walk and you come upon an emergency.  It might be a house on fire, someone is unconscious or an act of violence is being perpetuated.  What could you do? Did I mention it is 1914?  In 1914, if you needed to get help, chances are they will arrive too late. However, in 2014, most people have cell phones and help can be there in minutes. Technology today helps us in so many positive ways outside of school.  Why should we not use it to help our students in positive ways inside the school?

Today’s students have grown up on technology.  It has been apart of their lives as far as they can remember.  Not always a good thing, but a real thing.  Since it is so real, by using technology in the classroom, we can tie what we are teaching our students to their lives and make learning a part of their lives.  And that is a good thing.

Ever notice students talking about a movie they saw?  It might have been designed to purely entertain, but often times it will spark a conversation about the topic of the movie that leads to inquiry.  A teaching moment has been created.  Technology in the classroom can do that, too.  It can spark an inquisitive discussion.  Students become engage and participate.  They receive immediate feedback, not just from the teacher, but the other students (Raju, 2013).

What about the students who have difficulties learning?  Students with low attention spans will be aided by switching activities (Raju, 2013).  This is much easier to accomplish with technology.  A short video followed by a mini quiz on the material using clickers can prepare them for an interactive lesson on the computer.  If students have physical challenges, close captioning can be used for those with hearing impairments or text to speech software can aid a student with little or no manual skills.

What impact does technology have on students’ learning?  Instead of listening to a lecture, students who are involved in the learning by creating videos on the subject – on a historical figure, a mathematical concept, interviewing an expert in their field or a time-lapse representation of a phenomenon occurring in nature – will better retain the information (Bernard, 2009).  As a side benefit, while working with technological tools, the students will acquire non-content area skills that will benefit them in their future (Raju, 2013).  This could be using Word in a math class to create a glossary of terms or Excel in a social studies or language arts class to create charts and graphs to support a position. Frequently asked questions can be placed on a class blog, wiki or webpage that students can access again later or if they were absent, thus saving class time (Bernard, 2009).

With technology, the classroom does not have to be contained inside four walls.  Students can connect with people who are using the what they learned in school in their careers (Raju, 2013).  They can  see what engineers, archaeologists, botanists and others do in a typical day (or not so typical day).  They can learn about other cultures by communicating with other students around the world (Raju, 2013).

Even a little bit of technology in your class, regardless of the content area, can have a dramatic effect on students.  I teach students who left school without getting a diploma.  A few years ago, my school purchased interactive whiteboards.  In order to quickly use them, I created flipcharts that were practice problems.  The students would read the problem and answer a multiple choice question using a student response system.  This was rote memorization and drill and practice put on a big screen.  My students began to work harder in class.  They were more involved in the lesson.  They enjoyed coming to my class more than some others who weren’t using the technology as much.  Did it help? Every year, the percent of students who passed the GED test went up a couple of points. This past year, over ⅔ of my students achieved their GED.  These were students who were unsuccessful in the traditional school setting.  With the change to the GED 2014 Test, students will need to have higher-ordered thinking skills and even more technological skills.  Thus the biggest advantage to using technology in all content areas is because the future depends upon it.

Bernard, S. (2009). How to teach with technology. Edutopia. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/digital-generation-lesson-ideas

Raju, S. (2013). Top 10 reasons to use technology in education: iPad, tablet, computer, listening centers. YouTube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ulb4jl3xqs8